Living single-celled organisms. Bacteria are found in all foods. Most are killed by high temperatures, but some form toxins which may or may not be killed by heat. They can be carried by water, wind, insects, plants, animals, and people. Bacteria survive well on skin and clothes and in human hair. They also thrive in scabs, scars, the mouth, nose, throat, intestines, and room-temperature foods.
Refers to the danger of food contamination by disease-causing microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi) and their toxins and by certain plants and fish that carry natural toxins.
The process of standardizing a temperature monitoring instrument to ensure that it will measure within a specific temperature range in which the instrument is designed to operate.
Chemical food born illnesses are among the most deadly. Chemicals and other natural toxins formed in food include agents such as scombrotoxin and ciguatoxin. Store cleaning supplies in a different area away from stored food.
(noun) – The state wherein correct procedures are being followed and criteria are being met.
Actions and activities that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
Actions to be taken when the results of monitoring at the Critical Control Point (step at which control can be applied) indicate a loss of control.
Critical Control Point
(CCP) – A step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.
A criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability.
The unintended presence of potentially harmful substances, including microorganisms in food.
The transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing microorganisms to food by hands, food-contact surfaces, sponges, cloth towels, and utensils that touch raw food, are not cleaned, and then touch ready-to-eat foods. Cross-contamination can also occur when raw food touches or drips onto cooked or ready-to-eat foods. Cross-contamination is when bacteria spread between food, surfaces or equipment.
A chemical used to remove grease, dirt and food, such as washing-up liquid.
A chemical that kills bacteria. Check that surfaces are clean of grease, dirt and food before you use a disinfectant. Chemicals that kill bacteria are sometimes called germicides, bactericides or biocides.
Any person working in or for a food service establishment who engages in food preparation or service, who transports food or food containers, or who comes in contact with any food utensils or equipment.
All stoves, ranges, hoods, meat blocks, tables, counters, refrigerators, freezers , sinks, dishwashing machines, steam tables and similar items, other than utensils, used in the operation of a food service establishment.
Food borne illness
A disease that is carried or transmitted to humans by food containing harmful substances. Examples are the disease salmonellosis, which is caused by Salmonella bacteria and the disease botulism, which is caused by the toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum.
Food contact surface
Any equipment or utensil that normally comes in contact with food or that may drain, drip, or splash on food or on surfaces normally in contact with food. Examples: cutting boards, knives, sponges, countertops, and colanders.
A group of microorganisms that includes moulds and yeasts.
The number of new cases of food borne illness in a given population during a specified period (e.g., the number of new cases per 100,000 population per year).
A small life form, seen only through a microscope that may cause disease. Examples: bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
An incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food.
A microorganism that needs a host to survive. Examples: Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma.
A microorganism that is infectious and causes disease.
A thick-walled protective structure produced by certain bacteria and fungi to protect their cells. Spores often survive cooking, freezing, and some sanitizing measures.
Poisons that are produced by microorganisms, carried by fish or released by plants. Examples: Botulism caused by the toxin from Clostridium botulinum, scombroid poisoning from the naturally occurring scombroid toxin in some improperly refrigerated fish, such as mackerel and tuna.
A protein-wrapped genetic material which is the smallest and simplest life-form known. Example: Norovirus, hepatitis A.